Zeknd Virtual Machine (ZEVM)

ZEVM, the Zeknd Virtual Machine, is a cutting-edge execution environment designed specifically for the Zeknd platform. Derived from the Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM), ZEVM combines its foundation with innovative enhancements to cater to the unique requirements of the Zeknd ecosystem.

As an evolving technology, ZEVM is continuously improved by the Zeknd team to optimize its performance and capabilities. Therefore, it's important to note that the information presented in this document may be subject to frequent updates as ZEVM evolves.

With ZEVM, developers can execute smart contracts and decentralized applications seamlessly. It operates as a virtual state machine, governing how the system state evolves based on bytecode instructions and contextual data. ZEVM's execution model ensures efficient computation by imposing bounds through the use of gas, which limits the total computational workload.

ZEVM executes Zeknd bytecode, a sequence of instructions specific to the Zeknd blockchain. This bytecode is associated with accounts and is executed whenever a message is sent to those accounts. It empowers developers to interact with storage, send messages, and perform computations, enabling the creation of complex and powerful decentralized applications.

In summary, ZEVM is a powerful virtual machine that serves as the execution engine for smart contracts and dApps on the Zeknd platform. Through its optimized design and continuous improvements, ZEVM enables efficient and secure execution, unlocking the full potential of decentralized applications in the Zeknd ecosystem.


ZEVM, the Zeknd Virtual Machine, introduces a streamlined and enhanced architecture designed to optimize performance and security. Building upon the foundations of the standard von Neumann architecture, ZEVM introduces several key modifications to suit the specific needs of the Zeknd ecosystem.

At its core, ZEVM employs a simple stack-based architecture with a word size of 256 bits. This choice enables efficient cryptographic operations, such as the Keccak-256 hash scheme and elliptic-curve computations. Memory in ZEVM follows a straightforward word-addressed byte array model, while the stack has a maximum size of 1024, ensuring efficient execution of operations.

Notably, ZEVM incorporates an independent storage model, distinct from memory. Storage, represented as a word-addressable word array, is a nonvolatile component of the system state, preserving data across transactions. In contrast, memory is volatile and resets to a well-defined zero state with each execution.

Unlike traditional architectures, ZEVM separates program code from general memory and storage. Code is securely stored in a virtual read-only memory, accessible only through specialized instructions. This design enhances security and prevents unauthorized manipulation of the codebase.

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